How do hoverboards work? You must know these!

Modern hoverboards are designed and manufactured with state-of-the-art self-balancing technology. They have two wheels each connected to an individual sensor. To fully understand how an hoverboard works, let's examine each of them separately.

What are the components of a hoverboard?


Hoverboards are designed and manufactured with state-of-the-art self-balancing technology. Each wheel is connected to an individual sensor. To fully comprehend how an hoverboard works, let's examine each of them separately.


IR Sensor

Upon standing straight on the board, the IR (Infrared) sensor, which is placed right underneath the foot placement, activates and instructs the logic board to stay still and not start the motor.



Accelerometers use variable capacitance to measure position in three dimensions. Three capacitors are used, one of which is kept constant while the others are free to change position as needed.

They are highly sensitive to position changes. The capacitance of a capacitor changes as the distance between its plates changes. By making this change, the voltage can be monitored and used according to your convenience.



A hoverboard's magnetometer operates by measuring the magnetic field compared to the earth's magnetic field using the Hall Effect.


Brushless Electric Motor

Any SISIGAD hoverboard that is UL2272 certified uses a brushless electric motor, as opposed to a brushed DC motor. The stator houses the electromagnets, while the rotor houses the permanent magnets. The electromagnets are then charged in the stator to enable the hoverboard to rotate 360 degrees.


Logic Board

A hoverboard's logic board is similar to the CPU in a computer. An important component of any logic board is the microprocessor, which receives data from the various sensors and sends processed data to the respective parts for proper operation. Furthermore, the logic board prevents the battery from overheating by managing the power efficiently.


Tilt and Speed Sensors

Your hoverboard's speed is controlled by tilt and speed sensors, which send data to the logic board and gyroscope by measuring the wheels' revolutions per minute (RPM).


How do these parts work together?


Self-balancing boards have frames that pivot in the middle. Inside each wheel are the electric motors and sensors that detect speed and tilt angle. Gyroscopes receive data from tilt sensors in the wheels and relay it to the logic board, which keeps the board upright at all times. Under each foot pad, switches trigger an infrared LED light, which triggers a sensor. The light remains on when the rider keeps their feet flat, instructing the logic board not to run the motors. The rider leans forward, the switch turns off the LED light, and the sensor tells the logic board to spin those wheels. Since the motors are independent of one another, a rider can actually do circles in place. 

The tilt sensors in the wheels measure how far forward you're leaning. The gyroscopes transmit this information to the logic board.

As you lean forward, the logic board tells the motors to spin faster, in order to "catch up" with your center of gravity. This clever (yet simple) mechanism allows you to control the cruising speed of the hoverboard with your weight.

Now that you know how they work, why not check out our guide to the best hoverboard out there?

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